History of Prison:-
Crime is a universal process, so crime is found or can be seen in some form or the other in every age and every society. No society has ever been crime free from ancient times to modern times and at present. Therefore, in order to protect the society from criminals and crime, such a place was selected, in which the people who committed the crime could be kept in one place, so that they could get enough opportunity to atone for their act. These places are called by the names of Jail, Jail or Prison Home etc. This is the place where criminals are stopped. As in 1894 AD The definition of prison in the Act has been given as follows- "a prison as defined by the State Government is a place where prisoners are kept either permanently or temporarily."
1. Fairchild - a penal organization operated by either the state or federal government and used only for adult offenders with a sentence of more than one year.
2. Sethna- Prisons (ie prisons ) are meant for imprisonment. Those persons who are being tried are also kept in jail. In these places the offender is kept for correction.
In simple words, a prison is a penal institution which is run by the state and in which criminals are punished and reformed. Why was the development of a penal institution called prison, why criminals and accused are kept in prison? Is the prison merely an institution of punishment or is it also concerned with the reformation of the criminals? Rehabilitation of the criminals and accused living in the prison is also the purpose, many such questions in the answers of which the history and purpose of the prison are hidden. The main purpose of the prison is to show the power of the government or the ruler and through this he can punish the accused whenever he wants, whenever he wants. But the second purpose of the ruler is also that he keeps the criminal away from the society for repentance and keeps him in prison, so that he can repent for his action and that person when he realizes his mistake, he himself Can bring reforms, so that it does not lead to crime again.
The history of prison in India is very ancient and changes were made from time to time. There is no mention of prisons in any way in the Vedic age, but the history of human society at that time was based on the stories of the struggle of truth and falsehood, sin and virtue and such ideology. In the Vedas, the Supreme Soul is referred to as the Judge. Those who do good deeds are mentioned in heaven and those who do bad deeds in hell, so perhaps the place of hell itself would have been called a prison . Kautilya in the era of memory It is known from the Arthashastra of the Prisoner that the prisoner was released after taking an inaction, such as in the form of service, forced labor, corporal punishment or fine, but there is no mention of prison like today. It is also known from the study of epic era, Ramayana and Mahabharata that even in that era there was no system of prison. It is clearly mentioned in the Mahabharata that Devaki and VasudevaHe was kept in prison by King Kansa and Lord Krishna was also born in the jail of Mathura. But there were no prisons, these were only secret dungeons built inside the forts, but where they cannot go to the prison. Similarly, in the Ramayana period also, Ravana had taken the Sun, Moon, Vayu and other gods and goddesses captive and kept them at such a place, where they could not go to the prison. Kansa also kept his father Ugrasen as a prisoner, who was freed from Lord Krishna after killing Kansa. Where cannot even the Ashok Vatika go to the prison, in which Sitaji was kept. But in the pre-intellectual age , the existence of prison is found to some extent. The prisons of that time were very painful and painful. In these, criminals were kept tied up and sometimes there is a mention of suppressing them under weight. As Dr. .Sethna said in the earlier intellectual age while describing the prisons of the , has written that - " Prisons in India were certainly terrible before the time of Buddha. At that time there were jail-cells and the prisoners were kept tied with chains and heavy stones. And they were flogged for any simple pretext." especially the old forts were selected to keep criminals and rapists. They could not escape from these places, so they were towed with iron chains, handcuffs and shackles, which weighed the same or more than the criminal; Because such criminals used to be traitors or invaders, anti-state and they were also given many types of torture. Thus the ancient prisons, which used to be in the form of forts, housed criminals. There has been a discussion of imprisonment in the later Vedic period and Dharma-shastra era. Prisoners with life imprisonment were kept in them. In Vishnu Purana , there was a provision for taking out someone's eye and for committing the same offense more than 3 times, to give life imprisonment. Kautilya's economicsIn even the prison system is mentioned, not only The first example of how to build prisons was done by Kautilya in the Maurya period ; Because during this period many foreign invaders had camped in India. Which was not able to face the ruler of Nanda dynasty, Ghananand, who was a barber by caste. In Pataliputra, the capital of the Maurya dynasty, there was a system of keeping men and women separately. These prisons used to be dungeons built in forts and dark, completely deprived of any kind of light and amenities. It has also been mentioned in Manu Smriti that prisons should be constructed only on highways, so that the citizens who come and go, can be afraid of crime and also create a feeling among the people that crime is not the right way. .
The mention of the prison is also found in the reign of Ashoka, but these were also the same as they were built in the past. No changes were made. Even in the medieval period, only the old forts were converted into prisons, in these also any kind of light and facilities were not kept and it used to be very painful. But as the society was educated and developed, the nature of the prisons also changed; Because due to the urbanization and industrialization of villages, many kinds of disturbances started happening, so those people also started coming to the prisons, who were respected in the society. By the way in the year 1597 AD. The history of prisons before theBut it has to be acknowledged that prisons existed in some form or the other. But it is also true that prisons did not exist at all in hunting conditions. Kautilya, the author of Arthashastra himself, has mentioned about keeping men and women at different places in India since the time of Maurya, but it was not so in foreign countries. There men, women and children were kept together in one place and there was no classification of prisoners. In all types of crimes, the imprisoned prisoners were kept at one place, but in 1593 AD. In this it was felt that male and female criminals should not be kept together. To achieve this objective , the first prison for women in the Western countries was opened in Amsterdam, Netherlands, Europe.But in India, arrangements were made to keep women separate from ancient times, like Sitaji was also kept separate in Ashoka Vatika. Not only this, only women were appointed for their protection. In this way we can say that the ideology of sensibility and dedication towards women is going on since ancient times.
1704 AD In Pope Clement 11 th. had paid more attention to the improvement of the prison and he had for the first time called the prison as a hospital. They believed that just as a sick person is admitted to hospitals and treated, similarly a criminal is also a sick person and a prison is a place where his sympathy, his problems should also be resolved. Criminals should not be subjected to any kind of torture in jails. Torture evokes a sense of revenge and not a sense of reform. Thus the great reformist bacariaHe also stressed on reforms in prisons. According to them, prisons are only a place to keep criminals for some time, where they should be stopped and hatred should be instilled in them, so that they can not commit crimes again. Similarly, in the middle of the 18th century, the great clergy of England emphasized that if crime is to be reduced in the society, then criminals should be reformed not by punishing them in prisons.
As we have read that from the ancient to the medieval period, only forts and dungeons were converted into jails. There were also small cells in them, whose walls were 05-07 feet wide and there used to be so much space in them that he could not even sleep properly. When the walls of the fort were high and scary, it did not only give physical pain to the prisoners but also mental stress, so the construction of prisons also started being done modernly in the changing circumstances. India was a sub-investment country of Britain, so efforts were made to implement the reforms being done in Britain in India as well. 1773 AD John Howard drew attention to the terrible conditions of prisons in He described this terrible condition of the criminals in his book "The State of Prisons in England and Wales".did in. Some scholars even went so far as to say that John Howard had incarnated for the reformation of criminals and prisons, who for the first time advocated the classification of criminals. It was only after the publication of his book that the attention of the people turned towards the jails. The result of this was that the voices of many writers and scholars started to rise to reform the prison. This was the reason why John Howard prepared an act related to prisons, named Penitentiary Act of 1779.was. In this act, Howard had made many types of reforms, such as cleanliness and cleanliness in prisons, inspection of prisons, so that the shortage of prisons could be removed, also to oppose the fees paid by prisoners because fees from criminals It was taken, that the imprisoned prisoners should be got agricultural work done, so that they could get healthy food. Offenders should be segregated on the basis of nature of crime, gender etc. Such suggestions led to improvements in the places and places of detention for the first time.
The modern prison system is currently a product of the British administration, because in 1773 AD. In "regulating Act" the following passage went founded highest court in Calcutta was. Through this act the British government had laid down laws and rules. After this in 1833 AD. In the British Government, an Act was passed in the context of bringing many changes in the constitutional structure of India and an Indian Law Commission was appointed to make a uniform code of legal rules. 1834 AD The condition of the Indian prison was very unsatisfactory. There was neither enough space for the prisoners, there was no light in the cells, there was no sufficient quantity of food and clothes were also not provided according to the season, medical facilities were not available. The East India Company did not want to spend its money by doing any kind of improvement in the prisons, so they were not interested in improving the prisons. 1835 AD Till date 43 civil, 75 criminal and 68 joint prisons in IndiaWere. This jail used to be under the District Magistrate, so even these officers did not pay attention to them. This was the reason that prison reforms remained more centers of less torture.
For the first time in India, the idea of prison reform was introduced in 1835 AD. In by Lord Macaulay . Who also implemented modern education for the first time in India. Lord Macaulay drew the attention of the Government of India to the poor condition of Indian prisons and suggested that the condition of the prisons be studied; Because they need a lot of improvement. 02 January 1836 E.V. A committee was formed, which in 1838 E.V. I submitted my report to the Government of India. This was the first committee to study Indian prisons and give its report, which mentioned the rights of prisoners. In his report, the corruption, discipline by the lower rank employees in the jails.And also mentioned the administrative mismanagement found in them and suggested the establishment of a central prison and also mentioned about the establishment of a modern prison. Thus in the year 1846 AD. A Central Prison was established in Agra in AD and it was the first Central Prison in India. After this 1848 AD. In Bareilly and Allahabad , 1852 AD In Lahore, 1857 AD Madras , 1864 AD Mumbai and Alipur , Varanasi, Fatehgarh and 1867 AD. was established in Lucknow . For the first time to operate under their supervision, in 1844 AD. The Inspector General of Prisons (Inspector General of Prisons) was appointed in 1850 ADThe Government of India made this post permanent in place of temporary in jails and the appointment of Inspector General of Prisons started in all the provinces of the country . Where is the Director General of Prisons currently known ? In 1862 Punjab, in 1854 Bombay and Madras and in 1862 all the Central Provinces were appointed Inspector Generals . In the same year in 1862 , civil surgeons were appointed as superintendent to run the district prisons, so that the prisoners detained in the jails could also get proper treatment; Because during the long closure, many types of physical and mental diseases started arising in the prisoners. This experiment was so successful that the Government of India1864 AD I ordered to appoint civil surgeons as all the district jails of the provinces.
Thus in the year 1858 AD. After this, in the next three years, the Civil Procedure Code, the Indian Penal Code, the Criminal Procedure Code, came in the form of law and from this the modern prison system started in India. After this, the mention of the beginning of the campaign of prison reform movement is also found from this. It is a matter of regret that no reforms have been done in the Indian prison system. For the first time in the British Empire, there is a mention of changing the nature of prisons. 1839 AD Crawford as the President of the Prison Discipline Society, Londonmade some suggestions. The fundamental element in these was that the criminals should be kept in separate cells. 1877 AD Under this arrangement, such a provision was made that the inspectors could hear the complaints of the criminals. Along with this, every criminal had complete freedom to apprise him of his difficulties. 1894 AD In England the Gladstone Committee was established. The committee criminals and gave various suggestions for the improvement of prison like to fixed hours of labor to eliminate unnecessary labor was suggested that the committee should be productive labor rather painful to give them punishment, criminals move orchestrated Batkr working group Instead , it was suggested to get different works done, so that he could be free after completing his work. Establishment of correctional homes for juvenile offenders for the first timeThe idea of was also given by this committee and said that instead of punishment, they should adopt corrective working style, so that their talent can be used in the interest of the country. Accepting these suggestions, in the year 1898 E.V. The Prisons Act was passed in the British Parliament in AD and by this act many changes were made to the structure of the prisons and in them.
The second attempt at prison reform in India was made in 1864 AD to improve the prison management. A second committee was formed in This committee advocated for providing a minimum space for each prisoner in the prison, so that he could get enough space to sleep. This committee also mentioned the improvement of food, clothing, bedding and living conditions for the prisoners. It said in the report that there should be a provision of confinement cells for 15 percent of the prisoners in the Central Prison , so that they can atone for their work. It was also suggested to make arrangements for education for the juvenile delinquents and adult delinquents separately . 1870 AD In India, the Government of India passed an act to amend the prison laws in the country, under which the prison Arrangements were also made for the appointment of Superintendent, District Medical Officer and Jailor and other necessary officers and employees. It is mentioned in section 07 of the Act 1870. The Superintendent of Prisons was given the power to appoint Jailor and Deputy Jailor with the approval of Inspector General of Prisons . Thus Act under the 1870 prison superintendent, who medical officer was, he was able to appoint jailer and deputy jailer.At the same time, many agitators were revolting from place to place to fight for freedom, so due to the need for officers and employees in jails, such rights were given to the local officials; Because the jails were full of agitators. Under this act, arrangements were made to keep men and women and adult and child offenders separately. All the prisoners belonging to civil were allowed to carry on their private professions with the permission of the superintendent. In this way, the efforts to improve the system of useful work for prisoners and inhuman corporal punishment given to them were materialized under this Act.
Deputy Superintendent (Jailor)
Central Jail Ujjain (MP)